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Union of Concerned Scientists(憂慮する科学者の会)、Climate 2030: A National Blueprint for a Clean Energy Economy (2009)を公表

 アメリカのUnion of Concerned Scientists(憂慮する科学者の会)がClimate 2030: A National Blueprint for a Clean Energy Economy (2009)という報告書を公表中です。
 2030年の長中期的な目標におけるクリーンエネルギーへの取り組みにより、気候変動とエネルギー問題に具体的にアプローチする意欲的な提案、報告書です。同会では、2050年に80%温暖化効果ガス削減という目標に向けて、2005年から2030年までの具体的なクリーンエネルギーを中心とした経済、社会基盤整備により現状から出発し、どのようにアメリカ社会が変化することが可能なのかを、239ページの大冊のリポートで描いています。サマリーを読むだけでも、参考になります。

Union of Concerned Scientists / Climate 2030: A National Blueprint for a Clean Energy Economy (2009)

"UCS's Climate 2030 analysis presents a comprehensive set of smart policies to jump-start the clean energy transition for maximum benefit to our environment and economy."

Climate2030cover-----image : 左 - Climate 2030 Blueprint Executive Summary カバー。下 - P.13キャプチャー画像 -----
Climate2030summaryp13

コメント続き
 のちのちの検索のために、目次を引用しておきます。部分的にしか読んでいませんが、この分析、リポートの”力”には感嘆の念を禁じえません。今まさに、アメリカにとって、そして”日本にとっても必要”な労作です。(t_t)

" Climate 2030: A National Blueprint for a Clean Energy Economy (2009)

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements vii
Executive Summary ix
Chapter 1
A Vision of a Clean Energy Economy and a Climate-Friendly Future 1
1.1. The Climate 2030 Approach 1
1.2. Building on Previous Studies 3
1.3. Clean Energy Economy: A Solution for Many Challenges 4
1.4. Setting a Target for U.S. Emissions 5
1.5. 2020 Targets: The Importance of Near-Term Goals 7
Chapter 2
Our Approach 11
2.1. Our Model 11
2.2. The Reference Case 12
2.3. The Climate 2030 Blueprint Case 12
2.4. The Blueprint Cap on Global Warming Emissions 13
2.5. The Blueprint Analysis of Energy Efficiency 15
2.6. The Blueprint Analysis of the Biomass Supply Curve 15
2.7. The Bottom Line 16
2.8. Summary of Blueprint Assumptions 17
Chapter 3
Putting a Price on Global Warming Emissions 25
3.1. How a Well-Designed Cap-and-Trade Program Works 25
3.2. A Tried-and-Tested Approach 26
3.3. Design for Success 27
3.4. A Cap-and-Trade Policy Alone is Not Sufficient 32
Chapter 4
Where We Work, Live and Play:
Technology for Highly Efficient Industry and Buildings 37
4.1. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Industry 37
4.2. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Residential and Commercial Buildings 39
4.3. Potential for Greater Efficiency 43
4.4. Costs of Improving Energy Efficiency 44
4.5. Key Challenges for Improving Energy Efficiency 46
4.6. Key Policies for Improving Energy Efficiency 47
4.7. The Bottom Line 51
Chapter 5
Flipping the Switch to Cleaner Electricity 57
5.1. Electricity from Renewable Energy Technologies 58
5.1.1. Types of Renewable Technologies 58
5.1.2. The Vast Potential of Electricity from Renewable Sources 67
5.1.3. Costs of Producing Electricity from Renewable Sources 68
5.1.4. Key Challenges for Producing Electricity from Renewable Sources 73
5.1.5. Key Policies for Increasing Electricity from Renewable Sources 74
5.2. Electricity from Fossil Fuels with Carbon Capture and Storage 77
5.2.1. Types of CCS Technologies 78
5.2.2. Potential of Carbon Capture and Storage 78
5.2.3. Costs of Carbon Capture and Storage 79
5.2.4. Key Challenges for Carbon Capture and Storage 79

5.2.5. Key Policies for Carbon Capture and Storage 80
5.3. Electricity from Advanced Nuclear Plants 81
5.3.1. Types of Advanced Nuclear Technologies 81
5.3.2. Potential of Advanced Nuclear Power 82
5.3.3. Costs of Advanced Nuclear Power 83
5.3.4. Key Challenges for Advanced Nuclear Power 84
5.3.5. Key Policies for Advanced Nuclear Power 86
Chapter 6
You Can Get There from Here: Transportation 93
6.1. Driving Change: Technologies to Improve Fuel Efficiency and Air Conditioning 94
6.1.1. Potential and Costs of Vehicle Technologies 95
6.1.2. Key Challenges for New Vehicle Technologies 99
6.1.3. Key Policies for Putting Better Vehicle Technology to Work 100
6.2. Smart Fill Ups: Switching to Low-Carbon Fuel 107
6.2.1. Potential and Costs of Low-Carbon Fuel 107
6.2.2. Key Challenges for Low-Carbon Fuel 113
6.2.3. Key Policies for Moving to Low-Carbon Alternatives 115
6.3. The Road Less Traveled: Reducing Vehicle Miles 117
6.3.1. Potential for Reducing Car and Truck Travel 118
6.3.2. Key Challenges for Smarter Travel, Freight Transport, and Cities 121
6.3.3. Key Policies That Provide New Options for Getting There from Here 122
Chapter 7
We Can Do It: Analyzing Solutions to Global Warming 131
7.1. Reference Case: Significant Growth in Carbon Emissions 133
7.2. The Big Picture: The Blueprint Cuts Carbon Emissions, Saves Money, and Reduces Energy Use 134
7.3. Detailed Results: The Blueprint Cap-and-Trade Program 143
7.4. Detailed Results: The Electricity Sector 148
7.5. Detailed Results: Industry and Buildings 155
7.6. Detailed Results: Transportation 156
7.7. Land-Use Implications of the Blueprint 163
7.8. Sectoral Policies Are Essential for a Cost-Effective Blueprint 167
7.9. Economic, Energy, Health, and Global Benefits of Strong U.S. Climate Policies 172
7.10. Limitations, Uncertainties, and Opportunities for Future Research 173
Cultivating a Cooler Climate: Solutions That Tap Our Forests and Farmland 181
Chapter 8
The Way Forward 185
8.1. Building Block One: A Well-Designed Climate Policy 185
8.2. Building Block Two: More Efficient Industries and Buildings 187
8.3. Building Block Three: A Clean Future for Electricity 188
8.4. Building Block Four: A Smarter, Cleaner Transportation System 189
8.5. Building Block Five: International Policies 192
8.6. Conclusion 194

Figures, Tables, and Boxes
Figures
ES.1. The Sources of U.S. Heat- Trapping Emissions in 2005 ix
ES.2. Net Cuts in Global Warming Emissions under the Climate 2030 Blueprint xi
ES.3. Net Consumer and Business Savings (by Census Region in 2030, in 2006 dollars) xii
ES.4. Net Cumulative Savings (2010.2030) xvi
ES.5. The Source of Cuts in Global Warming Emissions in 2030 (Blueprint case vs. Reference case) xvii
ES.6. The Source of Savings in 2030 (Blueprint case vs. Reference case) xviii
1.1. The Sources of U.S. Heat-Trapping Emissions in 2005 2
1.2. The Risks of Climate Change: The “Burning Embers” Diagram 6
2.1. U.S. Emissions Cuts under the Blueprint Cap 14
4.1. Residential and Commercial Energy Use 40
4.2. Efficiency Helps Meet U.S. Energy Demand 43
4.3. The Energy Savings and Costs of Efficiency Programs 45
5.1. Sources of U.S. Electricity (2007) 57
5.2. Installed Wind Power Capacity (2008) 59
5.3. The Potential of Concentrating Solar Power 62
5.4. How Enhanced Geothermal Systems Work 64
5.5. Goethermal Potential 65
5.6. Bioenergy Potential 66
5.7. Declining Cost of Renewable Electricity (levelized cost of electricity, in cents per kilowatt-hour) 69 5.8. Cost of Electricity from Various Sources (2015) (levelized cost of electricity, in dollars per
megawatt-hour) 71
5.9. How Carbon Capture and Storage Works 77
5.10. Nuclear Power Plant Construction Costs Rising Faster than Other Technologies 84
6.1. The Sources of Transportation Heat-Trapping Emissions (2005) 93
6.2. Fuel Economy Potential for Cars, Minivans, SUVs, and Pick-ups 96
6.3. Petroleum Use in Transportation (2005) 107
7.1. Net Cuts in Global Warming Emissions under the Climate 2030 Blueprint 134
7.2. The Source of Cuts in Global Warming Emissions in 2030 (Blueprint case vs. Reference case) 135
7.3. The Source of Savings in 2030 (Blueprint case vs. Reference case) 138
7.4. Net Consumer and Business Savings (by Census Region in 2030, in 2006 dollars) 139
7.5. Demand for Petroleum Products 141
7.6. Bioenergy Use (Blueprint Case vs. Reference Case) 143
7.7. Actual Emissions Compared to Cap Emissions (Blueprint Results vs. Model Input, 2000-2030) 145
7.8. Prices of Carbon Allowances and Offsets under the Climate 2030 Blueprint 147
7.9. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants 148
7.10. Sources of Electricity 149
7.11. Blueprint Renewable Electricity Mix (2030) 152
7.12. Transportation Carbon Emissions 156
7.13. Changes in Transportation Carbon Emissions (Reference Case) 158
7.14. Transportation Carbon Emissions (2030) 158
7.15. Changes in Transportation Carbon Emissions (Blueprint Case vs. Reference Case) 161
7.16. Mix of Alternative Fuels under the Climate 2030 Blueprint 162
7.17. Total Land-Use Effects of Renewable Electricity, Biofuels, Avoided Coal Mining, and Afforestation Offsets in 2030 (Blueprint case) 165
7.18. Prices of Carbon Allowances 169
7.19. The Source of Cuts in Global Warming Emissions in 2030 (No Complementary Policies case vs. Reference case) 170
7.20. U.S. Energy Use, Blueprint Case vs. No Complementary Policies Case 171
7.21. Net Cumulative Savings (2010.2030) 172
8.1. Choosing a Clean Energy Economy 195

Tables
ES.1. Annual Consumer and Business Savings (in billions of 2006 dollars) xvii
3.1. Yearly Caps on U.S. Global Warming Emissions under the Climate 2030 Blueprint 32
4.1. Energy Efficiency Potential 43
4.2. Energy Savings in Buildings and Industry from Blueprint Policies 47
4.3. Key Policies for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Industry and Buildings 52
5.1. Technical Potential for Producing U.S. Electricity from Renewable Sources 60
5.2. Proposed U.S. Offshore Wind Projects (2007) 61
6.1. Fuel Economy Potential and Costs Used in the Climate 2030 Blueprint 99
6.2. Standards for Vehicle Global Warming Emissions 104
6.3. A Look at Cellulosic Ethanol in 2030 109
6.4. Potential of Advanced Vehicles and Fuels 116
6.5. Potential for Reducing Vehicle Miles Traveled 124
7.1. Annual Blueprint Savings (in billions of 2006 dollars) 136
7.2. Comparison of U.S. Energy Use (Blueprint Case vs. Reference Case, in quadrillion Btu) 141
7.3. Water Savings from Electricity Generation (2030) (Blueprint Case vs. Reference Case) 154
7.4. Annual Consumer and Business Savings from Transportation (in billions of 2006 dollars) 159
7.5. Land Needed for Renewable Electricity, Biofuels, and Afforestation Offsets in 2030 166

Boxes
1.1. Causes and Effects of Global Warming 5
1.2. Success Story: Reinventing Pittsburgh as a Green City 8
2.1. Understanding Market Barriers to Climate Solutions 13
3.1. Climate 2030 Blueprint Modeling Assumptions: Cap-and-Trade Program 31
3.2. How It Works: Cap and Trade 33
4.1. Success Story: The Two-Fer.How Midwesterners Are Saving Money while Cutting Carbon Emissions 53
4.2. Success Story: Three Companies Find Efficiency a Profitable Business Strategy 54
5.1. Technologies on the Horizon: Renewable Energy 72
5.2. Key Assumptions for Technologies Used to Produce Electricity 87
5.3. Key Assumptions for Electricity Policies 88
5.4. Success Story: The Little Country That Could 89
5.5. Success Story: Surprises in the Desert 90
6.1. The Advantages of Regulating Vehicle Emissions versus Fuel Economy 102
6.2. Promising Policies the Blueprint Case Did Not Include 106
6.3. Technologies and Other Options on the Horizon: Transportation 126
6.4. Success Story: Jump-Starting Tomorrow’s Biofuels 126
6.5. Success Story: It Takes an Urban Village to Reduce Carbon Emissions 128
7.1. Climate 2030 Blueprint Policies 132
7.2. Major Findings under the Climate 2030 Blueprint 133
7.3. Public Health and Environmental Benefits of Reduced Coal Use 151
7.4. Impact of the Blueprint Policies in 2020 167 7.5. Success Story: Some Good News in Hard Times 176
7.6. Success Story: The Early Feats and Promising Future of Hybrid-Electric Vehicles 178
Success Story: Farmers and Fungi.Climate Change Heroes at the Rodale Institute 183
8.1. How We Can Cut Emissions by More than One-Third by 2020 187
8.2. How It Works: REDD 193 "

参考エントリー
環境省「温室効果ガス2050年80%削減のためのビジョン」で2050年に太陽光発電140倍などを構想-----ソフトエネルギー、2009/08/17

「2020年に20%を再生可能エネルギーで賄う」ってことでいきましょう!-----ソフトエネルギー、2007/07/26



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